Bạn đang xem: Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty sec



II. Read the following passage và mark the letter A, B, C, D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to lớn each of the questions

Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time elapses, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way lớn the short term memory(STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest khổng lồ pass on to lớn the STM, also known as the working memory. There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number.Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to lớn long term storage.When making a conscious effort lớn memorize something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”. By repeating something over and over again, one is able lớn keep a memory alive.

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Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency khổng lồ disappear. When a pen và paper are not handy, people often attempt lớn remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks lớn come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to long term memory. A better way is to lớn practice “elaborate rehearsal”. This involves assigning semantic meaning lớn a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories
. Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long term memory and used often; however, if a memory seems to lớn be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization.